Energy storage goes by lithium (Li) & hydrogen (H2)
"Bet on Li & H2 for short- & long-term energy storage approaches"
Worldwide energy generation systems are being pushed towards renewables, which don’t come for free: they vary according to weather conditions and require a form of energy storage. Energy storage can be short- or long-term. Short-term energy storage applications, today and at least in this decade, is (will be) based on Lithium. Modular (we need it!) long-term energy storage applications will be based on hydrogen (and its derivatives), in compressed gaseous or liquid form.
As the first alkali metal of the periodic table, Lithium, a highly reactive element with the lowest density of all metals, rules the battery world. Currently, Li-ion batteries completely dominate the EV battery market and the (FTM & BTM) stationary energy storage applications. But Li-demand is especially critical, expected to rise five-fold to 5,500 GWh btw 2021 and 2030, which boosted the search for alternative batteries, like Sodium-ion. A brief overlook of the Lithium supply chain can be found here.
However, there are important heavyweight automotive mfrs (like Honda Motor Co.) that don't really believe in the permanent reign of the current Li-ion tech, betting on Solid-state ones, the next wave in battery innovation (lighter, safer, cheaper, more compact, w/ higher energy densities, and faster charges).
Hydrogen has emerged as an important part of the clean energy mix needed to ensure a sustainable development, especially if produced from the surplus of unconventional (solar & wind) and conventional (biomass) renewable energy sources (i.e., the "green hydrogen"). A brief overlook of the development of green hydrogen in South America can be found here.
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