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Brasil / Brazil

"Only renewables are truly sustainable; that’s why the future belongs to them" [1]

Is Brazil ready for the energy transition?

by Sérgio Granato de Araújo

  

Brazil stand out among the largest economies in terms of renewable energy, ranking first in South American and second in Southern Hemisphere (after Australia) in the IHS Markit's Global Renewable Market Attractiveness Rankings [2].

  

Near 45% from REN

  

In 2021, 44.7% of the Brazilian energy mix came from renewable sources, while the share of renewables in the electricity mix stood at 78.1%.  Brazil leads wind and solar PV power growth in Latin America (LA), having added 26.7% of wind and 55.9% of solar PV in 2021 alone, for a total of 20.7 GW and 13.7 GW (CG + DG) of installed capacity, respectively [3][4].

  

Biomass also plays an important role in the Brazilian energy mix, producing ethanol, demonstrating the country's flex fuel competence, and electricity, mainly from the burning of sugarcane bagasse, contributing about 8% to the country electricity mix in 2021 and 27% of total thermoelectric generation [4].

  

Basic Grid

  

Brazil’s electric energy (EE) production and transmission is a large and widespread system, with predominance of hydropower plants of multiple owners.  Such interconnected system, formally “SIN-Sistema Interligado Nacional" (AKA “Basic Grid”), provides the transfer of energy between subsystems, allows synergistic gains, and explores the diversity between the hydrological regimes of basins, serving the market in a safe, efficient, and economical way [5].

  

As a powerhouse in terms of water resources, the country ended 2021 with a total electricity installed capacity of around 181 GW, of which 60% (109 GW) came from hydropower plants.  However, such plants, branded by their great storage capacity, should reduce its relative share to 46% by 2031 [6], giving way to non-conventional RE sources, which, in turn, are marked by their temporal variability.

  

BRL 3.25 tri at stake

  

In 2031, Brazil is expected to i) be the 5th largest oil exporter, with 80% of it coming from the pre-salt, ii) have about 40% of EE installed capacity from DG, and iii) add one more nuclear power plant besides Angra 3 (still in construction).  Investments in 2021-2031 period is forecasted to reach BRL 3.25 trillion, 84% in O&G and 16% in EE generation [6].

  

The Ministry of Mines and Energy´s (MME) Decree 10,946/2022 allowed the exploration of offshore wind farms, widening investment opportunities in Brazil.  The country has a wind power technical potential of around 700 GW in places with depths of up to 50 m [7], with higher wind speeds than onshore.  With almost 7,500 km of coastline and rich offshore wind resources, Brazil is set to lead the development of offshore wind in LA [8].

  

Green hydrogen

  

The continental nation is well-positioned to become a major worldwide exporter of green hydrogen (GH2), thanks to its climatic conditions and logistics infrastructure [9].  Known for its versatility in sector coupling and to decarbonize hard-to-abate industries, GH2 will be produced in Brazil mainly from water electrolysis using excess electricity from RE sources.

  

The rebound of Covid-19 pandemic and the ongoing Ukraine conflict result in a tightening of monetary conditions and a slowdown in the global economy. Despite the global financial deterioration, Brazil can place itself as part of the solution, providing food and green energy to the world [10].

References

[1] Only renewables are truly sustainable. That’s why the future belongs to them | IPS Journal (ips-journal.eu)

[2] Global Power and Renewables Research Highlights, July 2022: Renewable hotspots, decarbonization efforts and challenges | IHS Markit

[3] ABSOLAR - Associação Brasileira de Energia Solar Fotovoltaica

[4] Apresentação do PowerPoint (epe.gov.br)

[5] O que é o SIN (ons.org.br)

[6] PDE 2031_RevisaoPosCP_rvFinal.pdf (epe.gov.br)

[7] Amazônia Azul possui grande potencial para a geração de energia eólica | Marinha do Brasil

[8] Brazilian offshore wind sector reaches the runway | IHS Markit

[9] Energy storage technologies – the key to the energy transition in Brazil (giz.de)

[10] Transcript of Western Hemisphere Department Press Briefing (imf.org)

Tropical Leaves

Goiás

(in Portuguese only)

O ESTADO DE GOIÁS apresenta posição geográfica privilegiada, ocupando 340.106 km² distribuídos entre 246 municípios. Com clima tropical, há duas estações bem definidas: verão úmido (setembro a abril, com 1.200 a 2.500 mm) e inverno seco, com temperaturas médias entre 18º e 26ºC. Possui taxa de urbanização de 90% e IDHM de 0,76, indicando boa longevidade, educação e renda [IMB, 2017].

 

Apesar de ter o setor de serviços como pilar de sua economia, Goiás é um dos estados líderes em produção de commodities agrícolas e medicamentos genéricos.  Destacam-se a indústria de alimentos e bebidas, mineração, fármacos, fabricação de automóveis e etanol. É o 4º produtor nacional de grãos com 22,815 milhões de toneladas (9,5% da produção de grãos do país). A pauta agrícola é bastante diversificada destacando a soja, sorgo, milho, cana-de-açúcar, feijão e tomate. O rebanho bovino é o 2º do país com 22,8 milhões de cabeças, ou 10,6% no efetivo nacional (IMB, 2020]..

Dados sumariizados de Goiás aqui
Rodovia

Brasil e Goiás - Aspectos Econômicos / Brazil and Goiás - Economic Aspects

(in Portuguese only)

O PRODUTO INTERNO BRUTO (PIB) mundial ficou em US$86 tri e o brasileiro em US$1,85 tri, isto é, 2,1% do PIB mundial. A produção industrial brasileira correspondeu a 2,1% da produção industrial mundial, porém contribuiu com apenas 0,82% das exportações totais de produtos industrializados. O PIB brasileiro de US$1,85 tri (Goiás, US$48,7 bi) resultou em um PIB per capita nacional de US$8,8 mil (Goiás, US$6,9 mil).

 

O PIB industrial brasileiro foi de US$391 bi (Goiás, US$12,8 bi), resultando em um PIB industrial per capita nacional de US$1,86 mil (Goiás, US$1,84 mil). A Tabela 1 apresenta esses valores.

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Tropical Leaves