Lithium

"an icon so true"

Lithium reigns supreme in the short-term energy storage octagon.  Not found in its elemental form in nature due to its high reactivity, it can be mined from brines (accounting for nearly 70% of global Lithium resources), hard-rock deposits (w/ shorter lead times), and clays (still in infancy).  Mining, however, is just the tip of the iceberg.  A brief overlook of the Lithium supply chain can be found here.

  

Table 1 shows Lithium conversion factors, Table 2 the Lithium requirements for different products, and Table 3 the seven largest Lithium-mining companies by market capitalization (2022).

 Table 1: Lithium conversion factors

Ref.: "The lithium supply and demand story" (mining.com) and "Techno-Economic Analysis of Lithium Extraction from Geothermal Brines" (NREL)

 Table 2: Lithium requirements for different products

Ref.Jiri Sterba, "La Inversión en Minería de Litio: Acelerando la Transición hacia el Transporte Sostenible", 2021.

 Table 3: Seven largest Lithium-mining companies by market capitalization (2022)

Despite of supply constraints, Lithium high energy density and lightness is key to produce devices such as cell phones (6 billion+ in use today), tablets and notebooks, to make mobility sustainable with electric vehicles (EVs), and for stationary (FTM & BTM) energy storage applications.

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