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Fig 1 - Europe prof 1

Energy Profile - Europe

"The Old Continent"


(population: 857 mi; GDP: US$16.64 tri; primary energy consumption: 993 Mtoe; electricity consumption: 2,809 TWh; installed capacity: 968 GW; energy self-sufficiency: 42.5%)


Becoming the world’s first climate-neutral continent by 2050 is the objective behind the European Green Deal, the very ambitious package of measures that should enable Europe to benefit from sustainable green transition [EC, 2023].


Energy mix - gas dependency


In 2021, two-thirds (76%) of Europe’s energy were made by burning fossil fuels: gas (34%), oil (31%), and coal (11%).  The Old Continent is highly dependent on natural gas (NG) for generating electricity, transport, and heating (in 2021, 34% of Europe’s energy came from burning gas).  Belarus is the most gas-dependent country in Europe with 62% of its energy coming from gas, followed by Russia (54%), Italy (42%), U.K. (40%), and Hungary (39%) (Figure 1[AJ, 2023].


Share on renewables


Europe has an abundance of renewable energy sources, and its countries in recent years have become leaders in driving the deployment of renewable technologies [IRENA, 2023].  Figure 2 shows the share of energy from renewables.  Europe has adopted targets to achieve a 32% share of renewable energy in energy consumption by 2030.


Wind & solar vs gas


Wind & solar generated a record 22.3% of EU electricity in 2022, for the first time overtaking nuclear (21.9%) and gas (19.9%), according to the analysis and shown in the chart below (Figure 3).  It comes after wind & solar overtook hydro power in 2015 and coal in 2019 [CB, 2023].

Europe reliance on overseas materials

Europe wants to reduce its reliance on China, but a full decoupling would be neither desirable nor achievable.  Figure 4 shows critical raw materials supply risk assessment for the EU's green transition.

 Figure 1: Europe reliance on fossil fuels

Euro rely foss v4.png

 Figure 2: Share of energy from renewables, 2021

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 Figure 3: Wind & solar topping power source for the first time ever

Share EU v5.png

 Figure 4: Supply risk assessment on critical materials

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Fig 2 - Europe prf 2
Fig 3 Euro prf 3
Fig 4 Eu risc material
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