Energy Profile - World
"Are current energy profiles dominated by fossils or renewables?"
Energy is a key commodity that enables socioeconomic development. Until now, a considerable amount of energy depends on fossil fuels (around 80%). But, climate change and, more recently, energy security issues are forcing the world to ramp up to renewables.
Energy transition basis
There has been much discussion about roadmaps for the energy transition. Two aspects, however, must be considered: the new (sustainable) energy model i) should not jeopardize the energy security, and ii) should be affordable. One major difference btw fossil power & renewables is that solar & wind are intermittent, requiring a form of energy storage. Also, renewables (REN) are CAPEX-driven (but have low OPEX). Additionally, many non-conventional renewable techs rely on critical minerals.
Renewables outsprint fossils in this decade
Figure 1 depicts the net change in primary energy supply by source, showing the replacement of fossil by renewable (basically solar, wind, and bioenergy) from the mid-2020s.
World & Brazil energy profiles
Figure 1: Net change in primary energy supply by source (2010-2050)